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Mosquitoes and the diseases they harbour aren't the only ones making the move northwards. Something similar is happening with the phlebotominae, known commonly as the sand fly. These flies normally feed on the blood of bats and inhabit the caves of South America. They are the primary vectors of leishmaniasis, or sand fly fever, a disease typical of the world's tropical areas.
As earth warms up, new species of insects have begun to establish themselves all across Europe, sparking concerns about biodiversity and public health.
Castiglione de Cervia, a village of 2,000 in northern Italy, was celebrating Ferragosto – a summer festival marked by collective rites, eating, drinking and sexual excesses – when one after another fell ill with weeks of high fever, exhaustion and excruciating bone pain.